Latin Words
  • [in vacuo] = in vacuum = in isolation and without reference to anything else


  1. The latest benchmarks show that this simulation technique is 50% slower than the one in vacuo simulation.
  • [in vitro]

cultured in laboratory condition

  • [in vivo]

in living organism

  • [in silico]

performed on computer or computer simulation

  • [in situ]

in the place, in the original position

  • [ex situ]

Ex-situ conservation means literally, "off-site conservation".
Ex situ experiments are those performed under the absence of potential control.

  • [de facto]

"concerning the fact" or in practice but not necessarily ordained by law
The term de facto may also be used when there is no relevant law or standard, but a common practice is well established, although not universal.


  1. The proposed algorithm by Alen has been the de facto routing algorithm in network. [A de facto standard is a standard (formal or informal) that has achieved a dominant position, by tradition, enforcement, or market dominance. It has not necessarily received formal approval by way of a standardization process, and may not be an official standard document.]
  • [de jure]

by law

  • [per se]

used to refer to something that is being considered alone, not with other things.


  1. The contribution of him per se would not make any progress for the project
  • [ab initio]

[in lit.] from the beginning (of the story)

  • [de novo] = [ab initio]

from the beginning

  • [ in toto ]

in a whole, as a whole

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License