hướng

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  • (n) phương hướng

direction

  • Đông, Tây, Nam, Bắc

Eastern, Western, Southern, Northern

  • (a) theo hướng ngang

transverse
transversal

(adv) transversely

Example:

  1. Membrane asymmetries in the transverse direction (from one side of the membrane to the other)

Trong sinh học, một số thuật ngữ khác được sử dụng
Khái niệm "top" (ở trên) không rõ ràng khi mô tả các vị trí bộ phận của động vật. Ví dụ, với con người, "top" là ám chỉ phía trên đầu (head) trong khi đối với con cá thờn bơn, đó là bên trái hay phải do cá này luôn bơi với cơ thể nằm ngang.

"Direction in biology"
"Direction in biology"
"Direction of horse in biology"
"Direction of horse in biology"
"Direction of human body in biology"
"Direction of human body in biology"
  • (a) ở trên

superior to (above)
Example:

  1. While the ears would be superior to (above) the shoulders in a human, this terminology fails when describing the armadillo, where the shoulders are above the ears.
  • (a) ở về phía của đầu

cranial to (towards the head), cephalad

~ rostral (ở về phía mỏ)

** (adv) cranially

Example:

  1. In veterinary terminology, the ears would be cranial to (towards the head) the shoulders in the armadillo, the dog, the kangaroo, or any other vertebrate.
  2. The primitive node is a small thickening at the cranial end of the primitive streak.
  • (a) hướng về phía đuôi

caudal to (towards the tail),
(adv) caudally

  • Superior/inferior = above/below
  • Anterior/posterior = front/back
  • Medial/lateral = towards the midline/away from the midline [lateral = distal = ngoại biên]
  • Dorsal/ventral = backside/belly side
  • Proximal/distal = nearer the trunk or attached end/farther from the trunk or point of attachment
  • Central/peripheral = principle part/extensions from the principle part or to the side of principle part
  • Parietal/visceral = wall of a cavitylorgans - within a cavity: These terms refers to organs within a body cavity.

In human, cephalad/caudal is used interchangeably with superior and inferior.But in four-legged animals they are synonymous with anterior and posterior respectively.

  • (a) ở phía trước

anterior to (in front of)

Example:

  1. While the belly is considered anterior to (in front of) the back in humans, this terminology fails for the flounder, the armadillo and the dog (although it could work for the kangaroo).
  • (a) ở về phía bụng, (giải phẫu) ở mặt bụng

ventral to (towards the abdomen)

Example:

  1. In veterinary terms, the belly would be ventral to (towards the abdomen) in all vertebrates. While the universal vertebrate terminology used in veterinary medicine would work in human medicine, the human positional terms are too well established to change.
  • (a) ở về phía lưng, (giải phẫu) ở mặt lưng

dorsal
(adv) dorsally
(n) dorsum

Example:

  1. In anatomy, the dorsum is the upper side of animals that typically run, fly, or swim in a horizontal position, and the back side of animals (like humans) that walk upright. In vertebrates the dorsum contains the backbone.
  • (a) ở mặt hướng ra xa khỏi trục trung tâm (facing away from the axis of an organ or organism)

abaxial

Example:

  1. The abaxial surface of a leaf is the underside or side facing away from the stem
  • (a) ở mặt hướng về phía trục trung tâm (nearest to or facing toward the axis of an organ or organism)

adaxial

Example:

  1. The upper side of a leaf is known as the adaxial surface

With hands

Direction used in hands
Direction used in hands
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